15mm Ancients - Romans Gallery, Uniform Guides and Items for Sale.

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A comprehensive gallery of all Roman troop types from Republic to Late Empire with detailed pictures and uniform guides. All Roman figures shown are offered for sale on our ebay shop and are replaced as they sell after 2 or 3 weeks. We are happy to take commissions as part of our professional painting service for 15mm wargaming Ancient Roman figures not available in our ebay shop. Uniforms are researched and are painted accurately not withstanding a little artistic licence here and there to make them pleasing to look at. Legionary units can have the legion standard changed for a cohort standard...just ask. Additional figures to bulk out a legion can be commissioned. For the most part we use Essex Miniatures for our Romans. The are a true 15mm and cleanly cast. Xyston is also used for their added detail but as they are 18mm their price is higher. It is our intention to stock all the Essex Miniatures Romans. Unfortunately they sell so well and I oftern have people asking me to paint there figures it's become a difficult task.

Camillan  Polybian

15mm Camillan Roman Long Spear Triarii
15mm Historical Camillan Ancient Roman Long Spear triarii.jpg

15mm Camillan Roman Unarmoured Hastatus
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15 mm Camillan Princepes
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Camillan/Polybian Roman Legionaries 4th to 2nd Century (107 BC).
Painted by Richard Turton

 
15mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.

Uniform was the ubiquitous red tunic, probably supplied by the state 
and taken from pay.

Armour for the poorer soldier, more probably the Hastatus was a square bronze breast plate about
9'' (23cm) and one greave on the left or forward foot to protect under the lower shield edge.
Richer citzens would purchase chain mail, more probably the  Principes  as  they  were  older  and more  likely  to  be  wealthy.

Helm was bronze moving to iron in the later
polybian period;
so some iron helms in the punic wars. It had a red or black plume of feathers.

Shield was oval and curved. It measured 4ft by 21/2ft (1.2m x77cm).
Made from 2 layers of wood and faced with leather with a wooden spine and a metal boss. Reinforced with metal on the upper and lower edges.
Probably painted red or light brown and with no blazon in this period.

Weapon was a spanish short sword, for Hastati a pilum, for Principes and
Ttriarii a long spear. By Polybian times Principes were armed with pilum too
At the end of the period (107 BC) when manipular tactics were abandoned Hastati used the pilum too.

15mm Camillan Cavalry
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Camillan Cavalry.
Painted by Richard Turton

 
15mm Romans Painted for a commission as part of our professional painting service of wargaming figures.

15mm Roman Velites Elite Skirmisher
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Velites Elite Skirmisher.
Painted by Richard Turton

15 mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.

Red or undyed tunic. Helmet uncrested, sword and several javelins. Polybius says 7 javelins.
Round shield 3ft (90cm) in diameter First mention of this troop type was 211BC

Marian Late  Republic

15mm Marian Legion
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15mm Roman Late Republican Legionary
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15mm Historical Roman Late Republican Legionary
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Marian Late Republican Legionary 107BC
Painted by Richard Turton

15mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.

In 107BC Marius reorganised the Roman army. He made the legions open to all classes and Italian allies thus making a full time professional army.

The old manipular tactics were discontinued and all legionaries were equipped the same.
 Tunic remained red. Helmet crest could be black or red or possibly a colour of the
generals choosing. Offensive weapons were pilum and shortsword. Shield was oval and dish shaped, with central spine and metal covered boss. They also sported the units blazon.
Chain mail was worn by all ranks although senior officers may wear bronze corselet or, as officers before modern times were wont to do, anything they chose.
Legionaries probably started wearing brown breeches in this period as the legions moved into harsher climates.

By  the  end  of  the  period the  helmet had  changed  with  a  longer  neckguard  and reinforced  forehead  protection with larger  cheekpieces. The  shield  was  smaller  and  squared  off  top  and  bottom, although  older  shields  were  still  in  use. Probably  just the  older shields  being  cut  down.

Early  Empire
15mm Roman Legionaries
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15mm Roman Legionaries
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15mm Roman Legionaries
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15mm Roman Legionaries
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15mm Roman Legionaries
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15mm Roman Legionaries
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Roman Legionaries.
Painted by Richard Turton

Early  Empire  Augustan  period

The  helmet  became  the  gallic type  with  a  longer  neckguard and  more  reinforcements.
A  scarf  was  now  worn. Tunic and crest  were  still  red. A leather  hauberk  was  worn  over the  tunic with  pteruges  at  waist and  shoulders  giving flexible  protecton. Chainmail  as  before  was  worn  over  this.

A  metal  belt  with  studded  pteruges was  worn  to  protect 'vital'  parts.
The  sword  was  now  worn  on  a  baldric on  the  right. The  right  seems  an  odd  place  to  wear  a sword but  may  have been  easier  to  access  in  a  press  of  shields. A  longer  sword  would  need  to  be  on  the  left. Pilum  was  still  carried.

The  shield  became  more  cylindrical and  was  shorter  than  before  with  straight  sides. There  seems  to  be  no  record  of  shield  colours but  in  later  times  they were  many  different  colours depending  on  unit  so  it  seems  likely  they  were  in  this  period  too.
They  had  unit  blazons  which  can  be  discerned  from sculptures.


Mid - First  to  Early Second  Century AD

The  most  obvious  change  was  the  'lorica  segmenta' flexible  strips  of  plate  armour. This  is the  image  we  have  when  we  think  of  roman  soldier. This  armour  was  introduced  quickly,  the  chainmail  probably  being used  to  upgrade  the  auxilia  arm of the  army.

It's  introduction  may  have  been  a response  to  heavier  weapons  and  heavy  throwing  spears  of  the  western  barbarian  enemies. Chainmail  may  have  been  retained  in  the  east where  it  was  adequate  to  defend  agains  arrow  fire.

The  helmet  crest  changed  and  was  removed  in  battle.

The  shield  became  curve  sided  although  was  still  cylindrical. Older  style  shields  were  still  in  use.

The  pilum  became  heavier, weighted  with  lead, and  the  sword  more  pointed  to  facilitate  a  thrusting style

15mm Rroman Army - Early Imperial Auxiliaries
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15mm Roman Auxiliaries
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15mm Roman Auxiliarie Skirmisher
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Early Imperial Roman Auxiliaries
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15mm Paintedl Roman Auxiliary long thrusting spear
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15mm Roman Archers Auxiliarie Early Imperial
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Early Imperial Auxiliaries.
Painted by Richard Turton

 
15mm Romans Painted for a commission as part of our professional painting service of wargaming figures.

 Auxiliary  Infantry

In  the late  republic  auxiliaries  were  unarmoured. they  carried  a  long  shield. sword  two  short spears  that  could  be  thrown  and  probably  some   javelins.

   By  early  empire  mail  armour  was  worn. Probably  supplied  from  disbanded  legionary  units  after the  civil  wars. Shield  was oval and  shorter with  squared  ends. A  leather  over  tunic  was worn  over the  chainmail, worn  under  the mail  later in  the  period. A  legionary  style  helmet, two  short  spears,  javelins and  sword. the  two  spears  became  one  by  the  late  century but  several  javelins  were  carried. The  mail  shirt  varied  in  length. possibly  cut  down  for  personal  preference  or  a particular  campaign. scalloped  edges  became common. Scale  armour  could  be  worn. Variations  are  a long  spear. Pilum  style  long  spear and legionary  style  shield. By the mid  second  century  the  mail  shirt had  become  universally  shorter, and  sometimes  of  scales.


Early Imperial Roman Heavy Cavalry
15mm Painted Early Imperial Roman Heavy Cavalry.jpg

Roman Heavy Cavalry.
Painted by Richard Turton

15mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.

 Heavy Cavalry..Late  Republic Early  Empire

A white  tunic  with  coloured  border. Cavalry  attached to  a  legion  would  have  red  tunic. Chainmail armour was  a  short  shirt. Large  round  shield  with  centre  spine and  a long  sword. Leather  equipment  and  harness  would  be  dark  red, dark  green  saddle-cloth. Footwear  was  dark  brown  or  black. Auxiliaries  had  a  yellow  horsehair  plume, legionaries a red. He  carried  a  lance  and  javelins. By  mid  first  century the  shield  was  smaller, some  units in  scale  armour. Helmet  decorated  in  bronze (brass) or  completely  plated. weapons  as before. Later in  the  century the  armour  dropped the  shoulder pieces. Changes  in  armour  if  not  economical  usually  denoted  campaigns  against  differently  armed  enemies. early  in  the  second  century the  mail  corselet  became  shorter  with  scalloped  edges. The  shield  was  oval. The  main  weapon was  javelins  but  a  few  units were  armed with  the  12 foot  kontos, a long  spear  used  two  handed.


15mm Roman Praetorian Cavalry
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15mm Roman Praetorians
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Praetorians and Praetorian Cavalry.
Painted by Richard Turton

 
15mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.

 Early Imperial. Praetorian  cavalry.

 Wore  a  red tunic  with  white  plume. Red  leather  equipment, possibly  white  leather pteruges in  some instances. Quality  of  equipment  would  be  better  than  the  legionary. Carried  a  lozenge  shaped  shield with  boss. Probably  also  oval  shield  depending  on  availability  and  commanding  officer  preference. Chainmail or  bronze  scale  short  corselet  and iron helmet with  bronze (brass) reinforcements.


Praetorian Infantry

Red  tunic  with  white  plume. Otherwise  the  same  as  legionaries. Their  equipment  was better  quality  and they  would  be  first  with  upgrades. Some  units  may  have had  white  leather  pteruges. Special  guards  units  would  be  more  decorative.

15mm Roman Ballista
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15mm Roman onager
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15mm Roman Ballista on cart
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Roman Ballista and Onager.
Painted by Richard Turton

 
15mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.

   

Middle  Late  Empire

15mm Heavy Roman Cavalry Attached to a Legion
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15mm Heavy Roman Roman Cavalry Attached to a Legio
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15mm Roman Cavalry Heavy Auxiliary
15mm Historical Ancient Roman Cavalry Heavy Auxiliary.jpg

Heavy Roman Cavalry Attached to a Legion.
Painted by Richard Turton

15mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.


Tunic would be red. In the early part of the period cloak could be red or reddish brown. By 4th century it would be yellowish brow, with purple patches denoting officer

Leather equipment including horse harness dark red with brown saddle and green saddle cloth. Horse trapping was textile possibly canvas type material? I don't know the colour so painted these yellow, artistic license keeping things looking bright and attractive,

Armour was chainmail and iron helmet with probably a red crest. Offensive weapon was Kontos, 2 handed thrusting spear and a shortsword, or verutum (short javelin) and oval shield.

By the end of the period colours could be varied.





Auxiliary heavy cavalry would have an offwhite tunic with patches and perhaps purple border and a yellow helmet crest, otherwise the same.

15mm Roman Light Legionary Cavalry Javelin
15mm Historical Ancient Roman Light Legionary Cavalry Javelin.jpg

15mm Roman Auxiliary Horse Archer
15mm Historical Ancient Roman Auxiliary Horse Archer.jpg

Light Roman Cavalry; the Promoti.
Painted by Richard Turton

15 mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.

These were the legionary light cavalry. Red tunic and plume, armed with small round shield seord and javelins.
Dalmatae were the auxiliary arm with offwhite tunic and yellow plume. The tunic would be decorated with purple patches and perhaps a purple edge.
The Promoti tunic probably had patches in the later part of the period. Horse trappings would be same as heavy cavalry but horses would be smaller.



These light cavalry could be supported by horse archers (equites sagitarii), uniformed as the javelin armed but carrying a bow.

15mm Roman Clibanarii late empire
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Painted 15mm Roman Cataphract late empire
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Roman, Cataphract and Clibanarii.
Painted by Richard Turton

15mm Essex Miniatures painted late Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.

 

Late  Empire  Cibanarii

They  wore  an iron  helmet  with  nasal  bar,  large  cheek-pieces  and   neck-guard. A long  mail shirt with  splits  so  that the  thighs  were  protected and  iron  splints  round the  lower legs. They  were  armed  with  kontos  bow  and  long  sword with  a  small  shield strapped  in  place  on the  upper  arm. The  horse  was  fully  armoured  in  bronze  or iron  scale barding. A half  armoured  horse  was  also  used (cataphract) These  carried  a  bow  but  not the  kontos.




15mm Late Roman Legionary
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15mm Late Roman Legionary
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15mm Late Roman Lanciarii
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Middle to Late Roman Legionary and Lanciarius.
Painted by Richard Turton

15 mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.


Legionary...Chainmail was replaced with the cheaper rawhide cuirass with pteruges. This would be yellowish in colour.
Tunic remained red with patches, probably purple applied.
As cavalry became the more important fighting arm, cheaper weapons and armour for the infantry were sought after.
With the lesser armour a larger shield was used. It was oval and flat with a double  hand grip. Colours are likely to be varied for individual units.
The helmet changed to a cheap uncrested type and an attic style with crest, possibly reserved for elite units.
The shortsword was replaced by a longer sword. The pilum was replaced by a light spear, which could be thrown or used in defence and javelins (verutum).
By the end of 4th centurey the spear was discontinued.
By the end of the period several throwing darts were carried (martiobarbulus) Particularly effective against unarmoured opponents.


Lanciarius...By the start of the 4th century a proportion of the legion was unarmoured and lightly equipped with a spear. Otherwise uniformed as legionaries.
They would be brigaded as light units often with independent assignments.


15mm Late Roman Slingers
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15mm Late Roman Legionary Archer
15mm Historical Late Roman Legionary Archer.jpg

Middle to Late Roman, Light Troops 4th and 5th Century AD .
Painted by Richard Turton

15 mm Essex Miniatures painted Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.


Legionary archers wore red tunic and breeches. Auxiliaries wore offwhite tunic and trousers, probably of brown wool. both would be decorated with purple patches. Helmet crests were yellow if worn (red for legionaries).

15mm Late Roman Auxilia Archers
15mm Historical Late Roman Auxilia Archers.jpg

Middle to Late Roman, Auxilia 4th 5th century AD.
Painted by Richard Turton

15 mm Essex Miniatures painted late Romans for sale in our Ebay Shop.


 Auxiliaries were armed with light spear and or javelins and long sword. A large oval shield was carried. It would have unit colours and blazons, Single or double grip was used. Tunic was offwhite, trousers brown, helmet crest yellow. Purple decorative patches were applied

Byzantine

15mm Byzantine Clibanarii
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Byzantine Clibanarii.
Painted by Richard Turton

15 mm Essex Miniatures painted Byzantines for sale in our Ebay Shop.

15mm Byzantine Cataphract Cavalry Archers
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Byzantine Cataphract Cavalry Archers.
Painted by Richard Turton

15 mm Essex Miniatures painted Byzantines for sale in our Ebay Shop.

15mm Roman Command
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15mm Roman Cavalry
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Roman Light
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Painted 15mm Numidian Light Cavalry.jpg